Keindahan dalam Disabilitas
Sebuah Konstruksi Teologi Disabilitas Intelektual
Keywords:intellectual disability, normalcy, perichoresis, idiot, imago Dei, sin
This article challenges conceptions of intellectual disability that view such conditions from the perspective of normalcy. In Indonesia, conversations of theological anthropology still employ a medical model lens, which perceives disability merely as bodily and intellectual impairments, thus failing the standard of "normal." Normalcy unilaterally defines disability and dictates normative approaches toward persons with disabilities. Consequently, persons with disabilities are perceived in Indonesia as mere objects of charity to be pitied. On the other hand, they remain susceptible to suffering violence. These trends owing to the fact that Indonesian society does not adequately provide either tangible resource considerations or sufficient social support. Lacunae in the theological literature concerning disability in Indonesian contexts foment in the life of the church further challenges for persons with disabilities. For persons there with intellectual disabilities, in particular, the situation is even more severe, as their condition is regarded as a kind of punishment for sin and further stigmatized as abnormal. This article offers a constructive theology of disability to dismantle the myth of normalcy, which reduces persons with disabilities to being merely impaired organisms within society. Theological musings on the beauty of all creation, the perichoretic relationship within the Trinity, the doctrines of imago Dei and imago Christi are taken up in this essay, to offer an inclusive theology expressly for persons with intellectual disabilities.
Black, Kathy. A Healing Homiletic: Preaching and Disability. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1996.
Brock, Brian. “Augustine’s Hierarchies of Human Wholeness and Their Healing.” In Disability in The Christian Tradition: A Reader. Eds., Brian Brock and John Swinton. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2012.
Burr, Vivien. The Person in Social Psychology. New York City, NY: Taylor and Francis, Inc., 2002.
Buxton, Graham. The Trinity, Creation and Pastoral Ministry. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2005.
Carlson, Licia. The Faces of Intellectual Disability: Philosophical Reflections. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2010.
Collier, Gary. Social Origins of Mental Ability. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1994.
Davis, Lennard J. Enforcing Normalcy: Disability, Deafness, and the Body. New York: Verso, 1995.
Fairbairn, Donald. Life in Trinity: An Introduction to Theology with the Help of the Church Fathers. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2009.
Farley, Edward. Good and evil: Interpreting a Human Condition. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1990.
Fiddes, Paul S. Participating in God: A Pastoral Doctrine of Trinity. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2000.
Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie. “The Politics of Starring: Visual Rhetorics of Disability in Popular Photography.” In Disability Studies: Enabling the Humanities. Eds., Sharon L. Synder, Brenda Jo. Brueggemann, and Rosemarie Graland-Thomson. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 2002.
Hoekema, Anthony A. Created in God’s Image. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1994.
Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Situasi Penyandang Disabilitas. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI, Semester II 2014.
Kretzmann, Norman, and Eleonore Stump. Logic and The Philosophy of Language: The Cambridge Ttranslations of Medieval Philosophical Text, vol.1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
LaCugna, Catherine Mowry. God for us: The Trinity and Christian Life. New York City, NY: Harper Collins Publishers, 1993.
McDonagh, Patrick. Idiocy: A Cultural History. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2008.
Migliore, Daniel L. Faith Seeking Understanding: An Introduction to Christian Theology, 3rd. ed. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2014.
Navone, John. Toward a Theology of Beauty. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1996.
Oliver, Michael. “The Social Model in Context.” In Rethinking Normalcy: A Disability Studies Reader. Toronto: Canadian Scholar Press, 2009.
Placher, William C. Essentials of Christian Theology. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2003.
_______. Narratives of a Vulnerable God: Christ, Theology, and Scripture. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994.
Ramm, Bernard. Offense to Reason: A Theology of Sin. New York City, NY: Harper and Row, 1985.
Reynolds, Thomas E. Vulnerable Communion: A Theology of Disability and Hospitality. Grand Rapids, MI: Brazoss Press, 2008.
Rivera, Mayra. The Touch of Transcendence: A Postcolonial Theology of God. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2007.
Rödl, Sebastian. Self-Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard College, 2007.
Rolnick, Philip A. Person, Grace, and God. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2007.
Shildrick, Margrit. Embodying the Monster: Encounters with the Vulnerable Self. London: SAGE Publications, 2002.
Tataryn, Myroslaw, and Maria Truschan-Tataryn. Discovering Trinity in Disability: A Theology for Embracing Difference. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2013.
Titchkosky, Tanya, and Rod Michalko. Rethinking Normalcy: A Disability Studies Reader. Toronto: Canadian Scholar Press, 2009.
Torrance, Thomas F. The Christian Doctrine of God: One being Three Persons. New York: T&T Clark, 1996.
Vanier, Jean. The Gospel of John, The Gospel of Relationship. Cincinnati, OH: Franciscan Media, 2015.
Wendte, Martin. “To Develop Relational Autonomy: On Hegel’s View of People with Disabilities.” In Disability in the Christian Tradition. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2012.
Williams, Rodman J. Renewal Theology: Systematic Theology from a Charismatic Perspective. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2007.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.