Indonesian Journal of Theology <p style="text-align: justify;">Indonesian Journal of Theology (<a href="">E-ISSN: 2339-0751</a>) is a theological journal published by Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia (Indonesian Theologian Association). It is established to enhance theological discourse among theologians across denominations and faith traditions, particularly in the Indonesian context. We also aim to contribute to the wider academic theological discourse in today's world Christianity, especially in the Asian context, by publishing the works of authors from all over the world. We welcome contributions from scholars of theological studies, religious studies, and other related fields. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">IJT is accessible in two different languages: English and Bahasa Indonesia. Please select one of the languages through the menu on the right. <br /><br /><em>Untuk mengakses IJT dalam <strong>Bahasa Indonesia</strong>, pilih Bahasa Indonesia di pilihan <strong>Language</strong> di sebelah kanan.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>ACCREDITATION</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Indonesian Journal of Theology has been accredited (SINTA 2) by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology, Republic of Indonesia, in accordance with decree number 164/E/KPT/2021.</p> en-US (Hans A. Harmakaputra) (Adrianus Yosia) Tue, 20 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 The Lord's Supper Revisited <p>The Lord’s Supper is probably one of the most vital elements in Christianity. However, churches nowadays witness two extreme attitudes in approaching the Lord’s Supper: one that over-sacralizes the ceremony as something mystical or magical while the other simply takes it as a ritual or memorial. While both notions are not wrong in some sense, the ceremony in fact falls somewhere in the middle. Eucharist involved two important dimensions: it is a meal, and it is a “sacrificial” meal. The ordinary and the religious aspects both exist within the eucharist.</p> <p>In the records of the Last Supper, Jesus ate the Passover “meal” with His disciples and reinstituted it. From then on, the early church celebrated the Lord’s Supper, gathering and breaking bread in houses, which was then known as <em>agape</em>—a love feast. However, what we witness in today’s Lord’s Supper is nowhere close to the original Last Supper or the early Christian <em>agape</em> feast. It becomes a ceremony without a meal; a celebration without a feast. It is ironic that the so-called “supper” only involves a wafer-like bread and a really small cup of wine. It is the absence of a “meal” that this ceremony becomes more and more detached. The Lord’s Supper becomes difficult to understand because of the emphasis on its sacredness. The ceremony remains a ritual as the “sacred” is separated from the “secular”.</p> <p>It is the contention of this study that the separation of the love feast from the ceremony of the Lord’s Supper that render it meaningless. This study aims to uncover the context and history of the Lord’s Supper, especially the significance of a feast or meal in the eucharist, and how it was lost in the course of history. We will see that it is in the context of a meal that the early church celebrates the eucharist, a thanksgiving in the form of a love feast. It is in the context of a meal that Jesus introduced His body and blood in the Last Supper. It is in the context of a meal that God commanded the Israelites to observe the Passover. When we approach the Lord’s Table without a proper meal, the eating of the “bread” and “wine” without context becomes a ritual without reality.</p> <p>Finally, suggestions are given to better approach the Lord’s Table, and hopefully regain the meaning and spirit of the ceremony.</p> Jessica Copyright (c) 2022 Jessica Tue, 20 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Eklesiologi Hibrid Pentakostal: Liturgis, Karismatis, dan Oikoumenis <p>Given the massive growth of Pentecostalism did not parallel the development of Pentecostal theology, Pentecostalism needs to strengthen the articulation of the theological practices it performs. One such growth area is Pentecostal ecclesiology since churches across the Pentecostal landscape seemingly carry out such work inadequately. For this reason, the search for alternative forms of Pentecostal ecclesiology presents as a necessity. As a model for Pentecostal ecclesiology, this article presents the case study of Indonesian Assemblies of God (<em>Gereja Sidang-sidang Jemaat Allah di Indonesia</em> or GSJA) International English Service (IES) Christ the King (CTK). By applying a framework and process for Pentecostal spirituality as conceived by Anglican Charismatic practical theologian Mark Cartledge, GSJA IES CTK employed Cartledge’s SET (search-encounter-transformation) framework to produce a Pentecostal hybrid ecclesiology of liturgical, charismatic, and ecumenical orientation. This article discusses the background, approach, and practices of GSJA IES CTK, as well as their ecclesiological constructive process promoting the construction of an alternative Pentecostal ecclesiology.</p> Welko Henro Marpaung Copyright (c) 2022 Welko Henro Marpaung Tue, 20 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Prophetic Churches for the Metaverse <p>With a number of churches racing towards the metaverse, this paper offers a preliminary response to the phenomenon of the meta-church from the context of Indonesian churches. Churches that adopt and participate in the metaverse ought to do so not simply to be another institution that holds worship or preaches there. Churches that enter the metaverse follow strategies that are driven by followers, likes, and viewers (Joas Adiprasetya) as digital equivalents for measuring attendance, building, and cash (Chloe Lynch) without a proper understanding of the nature of the metaverse and a lack of contextual awareness may unconsciously endorse and even underwrite a system that fosters injustice and inequality. To kindle such an awareness, in this article I wish to consider <em>Belle</em>, a 2021 Japanese animated movie that depicts a metaverse, which features Sponsors who capitalize on its resources and thereby abuse the metaverse by perpetuating deep inequities. The film illuminates the potential condition of a metaverse that promises unlimited possibility and purports to be impartial to everyone, insofar as it connects people and removes for many the barriers of time and distance. While I argue that Indonesian churches must learn from the prophetic character of Bitcoin, they must also stay vigilant against the inherent inequities brought to bear with the advent of the NFT (non-fungible token). Leveraging Joshua Nunzianto’s interpretation of an Augustinian economy of sacrifice, I re-evaluate the very concept of a metaversal economy based on notions of scarcity and proprietary ownership. Then, with reference to Walter Brueggemann’s <em>Prophetic Imagination</em> and Jürgen Moltmann’s <em>The Spirit of Hope</em>, I construct an ecclesiology of prophetic communities that sing the melody of hope.</p> Angga Avila Copyright (c) 2022 Angga Avila Tue, 20 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gereja yang Mendengar <p>Emotions of shame, guilt, and fear reflect ubiquitous if not normalized aspects of the human experience. This article seeks to explore how the church makes use of the emotion of shame in its theologizing. While shame is an oft discussed topic in psychology and counseling therapy, religious traditions have the tendency to exacerbate such an emotion—which can be seen in how the so-called ideals of the church can alienate those struggling with shame, even to the point of “disappearing” those who suffer. It stands to reason that in this alienating the church lacks a sufficient understanding of shame to proffer it of any use for its theologizing. Following a literature survey of qualitative research methods, this article employs a constructive theological method that considers how relevant a proper comprehension of emotions like shame prove to be for pastoral theology. This article concludes that the emotion of shame, rather than presenting an abyss between humanity and God, is a space to meet the God of perfection, namely, within the vulnerability and suffering of human persons, by means of a listening church.</p> Lamria Sinaga Copyright (c) 2022 Lamria Sinaga Tue, 20 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mungkinkah Dual Belonging sebagai Alternatif Mencapai Kesempurnaan Rohani? <p>Dual belonging emerges as a societal reality shaped by the formations of certain social and cultural interactions and family systems. As the works of Paul F. Knitter, Rose Drew, and Catherine Cornille show, the reality of dual belonging is in practice nothing new, particularly in Asia—including Indonesia. By means of their personal encounters vis-à-vis the reality of a religious diversity that is deeply integrated in social and cultural life (specifically in Asia), the contributions of Knitter, Drew, and Cornille prove both valuable for building interreligious dialogue and cooperation as well as beneficial for spiritual growth. Knitter and Drew, for instance, regard dual belonging as a societal good and positive merit of tradition, with Knitter even concluding that dual belonging presents a worthwhile alternative for making spiritual progress. Although Cornille mostly agrees that the ritual practices associated with dual belonging may offer spiritual benefits, she is dubious about the commitment and personal conviction of anyone who simultaneously pursues dual belonging in practice—though this clearly relates to Cornille’s position on multiple religious identification. While the practical development of dual belonging raises doubts and tension among adherents of variegated religions, the practice of dual belonging has become a sociocultural good within Asian tradition even despite the tension it brings, and this includes the case of Indonesia (Albertus Bagus Laksana). Dual belonging practices, such as pilgrimage in Indonesia, can nevertheless be beneficial for one’s spiritual growth when that spirituality is rooted in one’s religious beliefs. This article affirms the acceptability of dual belonging at the level of religious experience while also granting that claims of particularity on a cognitive level remain difficult to bridge. </p> Bedali Hulu Copyright (c) 2022 Bedali Hulu Tue, 20 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Transformasi bagi Seorang Peziarah <p>The development of theology and of philosophy since the 20th-century has failed to form a harmonious relationship between these domains. The concept of Reformed Epistemology (RE), which attempts from the Reformed tradition to link the two, evinces this failure in that RE unwittingly discredits nature and begets religious fundamentalism. Implications of this arrested development are manifest amid various crises—ecological, social, cultural, and economic. Taking these problematics as a point of departure, the author intends to bridge theology and philosophy by means of retrieving from 17th-century Reformed tradition a <em>theologia viatorum</em>. In connection with the phenomenological philosophy of Emmanuel Falque, the author posits that the proper bridging of theology and philosophy as fields of knowledge will create a harmonious relationship between them and thereby bring about Christian transformation for those called pilgrim (<em>viator</em>). Through such transformation, every Christian might come to realize the final end of theology, which—according to the Reformed tradition—is to worship and glorify God within the world.</p> Stephen Rehmalem Eliata Copyright (c) 2022 Stephen Rehmalem Eliata Tue, 20 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Bumi, Laut, dan Keselamatan: Refleksi-Refleksi Ekoteologi Kontekstual. <p>A book review of Bumi,<em> Laut, dan Keselamatan: Refleksi-Refleksi Ekoteologi Kontekstual. </em></p> Ricky Atmoko Copyright (c) 2022 Ricky Atmoko Tue, 20 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000