Kontribusi Doa Mistik Karl Rahner bagi Kalangan Reformed di Era Pascakebenaran


  • Firdaus Salim Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Reformed Indonesia




post-truth, mystic, mysticism, Calvin, Karl Rahner


Reformed conservatives tend to be suspicious and hostile to personal and subjective religious experience. Based on the works of John Calvin, Reformed theology is deemed to exclusively emphasize intellect and rationality. As the world is now facing a post-truth era, Reformed conservatives need to be aware that such era, which is generally understood in the political context, has also affected the dynamics of faith. The post-truth era has made rational and objective facts become less appealing. The subjective elements which involve mystery and awe have now deserved attention. In facing such an era, this article aims to show that the works of Calvin, especially Institutes and his commentary on the book of Psalms, are not hostile to personal religious experience. In fact, the works of Calvin are inseparable from mystical writings and even shows an openness to religious experience. Given such openness, Karl Rahner’s mystical prayers can instill the elements of mystery and awe in the faith of Reformed conservatives.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Firdaus Salim, Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Reformed Indonesia

Firdaus Salim graduated from master's theology program in Integrative Theology at STT Reformed Indonesia. He is a member of GKY Jemaat Pluit and currently is serving at GKY Jemaat Greenville.


Bartlett, Kenneth R., and Margaret McGlynn. The Renaissance and Reformation in Northern Europe. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014.

Boler, Megan, and Elizabeth Davis. “The Affective Politics of the ‘Post-Truth’ Era: Feeling Rules and Networked Subjectivity.” Emotion, Space and Society, Vol. 27 (2018): 75-85.

Bouwsma, William. John Calvin. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Bucey, Camden M. “The Triune Gift of Self: A Reformed Critique of Karl Rahner’s Theology of Divine Self-Communication.” Ph.D. dissertation. Westminster Theological Seminary, 2014. https://www.academia.edu/9840681/The_Triune_Gift_of_Self_A_Reformed_Critique_of_Karl_Rahners_Theology_of_Divine_Self_Communication.

Bulman, William J. “Introduction: Enlightment for the Cultural Wars.” In God in the Enlightenment. Eds., William J. Bullman and Robert G. Ingram. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Calvin, John. Commentary on the Book of Psalms. Vol. 1. Trans., James Anderson. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, t.t. https://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom08.html.

_______. Hosea. Vol. 1 of Commentaries on the Twelve Minor Prophets. Trans., John Owen (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdsmans, t.t.). https://ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom26/calcom26.vii.html.

_______. Institutes of the Christian Religion. Trans., Henry Beveridge. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1989.

_______. Psalms 93-150. Vol. 4 of Calvin’s Commentaries on the Book of Psalms. Trans., James Anderson. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1989.

_______. The Epistles to Timothy, Titus and Philemon. Vol. 21 of Calvin’s Commentaries. Trans., William Pringle. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1989.

Canlis, Julie. Calvin’s Ladder: A Spiritual Theology of Ascent and Ascension. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2010.

Challies, Tim. “The Boundaries of Evangelicalism.” Challies, May 8, 2013. http://www.challies.com/articles/the-boundaries-of-evangelicalism.

Chapel, Bryan. Christ-Centered Worship. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2009.

Chin, Clive S. “Calvin, Mystical Union, and Spirituality.” Torch Trinity Journal, Vol. 6 (2003): 183-209. www.ttgst.ac.kr/upload/ttgst_resources13/20123-164.pdf.

Davies, Stephen T. Rational Faith: A Philosopher's Defense of Christianity. Oxford: InterVarsity Press, 2016.

DeHoff, Susan L. Psychosis or Mystical Religious Experience? A New Paradigm Grounded in Psychology and Reformed Theology. Boston: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.

Egan, Harvey D. Karl Rahner: Mystic of Everyday Life. New York: Crossroad, 1998.

_______. “The Mystical Theology of Karl Rahner.” The Way, Vol. 52, No. 2 (2013): 43-62. https://www.theway.org.uk/back/522egan.pdf.

Farnsworth, Kirk E. Wholehearted Integration: Harmonizing Psychology and Christianity through Word and Deed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1985.

Ford, Patrick. Faith Isn’t Blind: Logical Arguments from Science, History, and Philosophy that God Really Exists. Bloomington, IN: Westbow, 2016.

Grier, Peter, and Story Hinckley. “Two Ways to Read the Story.” The Christian Science Monitor, 2020. https://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Politics/2020/1119/Post-truth-politics-As-Trump-pushes-fraud-partisans-pick-their-own-reality.

Horton, Michael. Calvin on the Christian Life: Glorifying and Enjoying God Forever. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2014.

Jacobsen, Douglas, and Rhonda Hustedt Jacobsen. “Faith and Learning in a Post-Truth World.” Journal of College and Character, Vol. 19, No. 2 (2018): 93-100. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/2194587X.2018.1445645.

James, William. The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature. Centenary Edition. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Johnson, Arthur L. Faith Misguided: Exposing the Dangers of Mysticism. Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1988.

De Jonge, Christiaan. Apa Itu Calvinisme. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia, 2008.

Keller, Timothy. Making Sense of God: Finding God in the Modern World. New York: Penguin Books, 2018.

Kelsey, Morton. Foreword to Reformed Spirituality by Howard L. Rice. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1991.

Knitter, Paul F. Introducing the Theologies of Religions. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2012.

Kyung Sik Joo. “The Nature and Characteristics of Calvin’s Piety.” Journal of Theological Reflections, Vol. 2 (2016): 155-190. http://scd.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2017/04/06-주경식155-190.pdf.

Lee, Paula J. “Lonely Mystics: A Practical Theological Analysis of Emerging Post-Secular Spiritualities.” Ph.D. dissertation. University of Denver, 2016. https://digitalcommons.du.edu/etd/1135/.

Magnis-Suseno, Franz. “Philosophy, A Challenge to Post-Truth, also in Indonesia.” Jurnal Filsafat, Vol. 30, No. 1 (2020): 1-22. https://jurnal.ugm.ac.id/wisdom/article/view/53671/27166.

McCracken, Brett. The Wisdom Pyramid: Feeding Your Soul in a Post-Truth World. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2021. Kindle.

McNeill, John T. Introduction to Institutes of the Christian Religion by John Calvin. Ed., trans., Ford Lewis Battles. Philadelphia, PA: Westminster Press, 1960

Packer, J. I. “‘Sola Scriptura’ in History and Today.” God’s Inerrant Word: An International Symposium on the Trustworthiness of Scripture. Ed., John Warwick Montgomery. Minneapolis, MN: Bethany, 1974.

Parnell, Jonathan. “A System for Praying.” Desiring God. January 1, 2012. https://www.desiringgod.org/articles/a-system-for-praying-in-2012.

Peters, Michael A. “Education in a Post-Truth World.” Educational Philosophy and Theory, Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017): 563-566. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00131857.


Rahner, Karl. “Christian Living Formerly and Today.” Theological Investigations VII. Trans., David Bourke. New York: Herder and Herder, 1971.

_______. Encounters with Silence. Trans., James M. Demske. Westminster, MD: Newman, 1966.

_______. Everyday Faith. New York: Herder and Herder, 1968.

_______. Faith in a Wintry Season: Conversations and Interviews with Karl Rahner in the Last Years of His Life. Eds., Paul Imhof and Hubert Biallowons. Trans., Harvey D. Egan. New York: Crossroad, 1991.

_______. Foundations of Christian Faith: An Introduction to the Idea of Christianity. Trans., William V. Dych. New York: Crossroad, 1978.

_______. Karl Rahner in Dialogue: Conversations and Interviews, 1965-1982. Eds., Paul Imhof and Hubert Biallowons. Trans., Harvey D. Egan. New York: Crossroad, 1986.

_______. “Nature and Grace.” Theological Investigations IV. Trans., Kevin Symth. Baltimore, MD: Helicon, 1966.

_______. Prayers for a Lifetime. Ed., Albert Raffelt. New York: Crossroad, 1984.

_______. The Content of Faith: The Best of Karl Rahner's Theological Writings. Eds., Karl Lehmann, Albert Raffelt and Harvey D. Egan. New York: Crossroad, 2000.

_______. The Mystical Way in Everyday Life: Sermons, Prayers and Essays. Trans., Annemarie S. Kidder. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2010.

_______. The Practice of Faith: A Handbook of Contemporary Spirituality. Eds., Karl Lehmann and Albert Raffelt. New York: Crossroad, 1983.

Rice, Howard L. Reformed Spirituality. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1991.

Sire, James. W. Echoes of a Voice: We are not Silent. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2014.

Slater, Jennifer. “‘Direct experience of God’: A Quest for Refinement and Illumination in Christian Faith and Practice.” Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae 36 (2010): 1-15. http://www.scielo.org.za/pdf/she/v36s1/02.pdf.

Sproul, R. C. The Soul's Quest for God: Satisfying the Hunger for Spiritual Communion with God. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2003.

Steinmetz, Mary. “Thoughts on the Experience of God in the Theology of Karl Rahner: Gifts and Implications.” Lumen et Vita, Vol. 2, No. 1 (2012): 1-14. https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/lumenetvita/article/view/1900.

Tamburello, Dennis E. Union with Christ: John Calvin and Mysticism of St. Bernard. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1994.



How to Cite

Salim, F. (2021). Kontribusi Doa Mistik Karl Rahner bagi Kalangan Reformed di Era Pascakebenaran. Indonesian Journal of Theology, 9(2), 168-194. https://doi.org/10.46567/ijt.v9i2.192